Activated Autolotous Lymphocytes Therapy
Lymphocytes (a type of immune cells which inhibit cancer cells) from a patient’s blood are collected, activated and proliferated. They are then injected back to the patient’s body to attack cancer cells. This method mainly includes activating αβ T cells.
As there are several types of anti cancer immune cells, different types of cells are often used depending on the cancer type and condition of the patient.
This treatment is also referred as NK cell or Gamma Delta T cell therapy depends on the majority type of cells activated for treatments.
T cells are collected from a patient’s blood sample and cultured in a lab for 2 weeks. The number of cells will be increased by billions which is then injected back to the patient’s body to suppress cancer cells.
Activated and cultured NK (Natural Killer) cells from a patient’s blood sample are injected back to his body to fight cancer cells. Unlike other immune cells, NK cells are non-antigen specific and can reach the target cancer cells to suppress them.
Activated T-lymphocytes that have αβ T-cell receptors are usually applied to ‘Activated autologous lymphocytes-therapy’.In addition, we started NK cell processing for the therapy. Even if NK cells proliferated, the chromosomal abnormality was observed in the past techniques.
The novel technique adapted by DENDRIX INC. in this time improved such problems and is the safety one at present.
The αβ T-cells show cytotoxicity to tumor cells that express HLA class I (class I), on the other hand NK cells show killing activity to class I negative tumor cells. Various cells express stress-inducing proteins such as MICA on their cell surface.Many tumor cells also express a lot of MICA and so on. NK cells have activating receptor named NKG2D on their cell surface. When the MICA is combined with the NKG2D, NK cells kill tumor cells as the result.
There are cases that are observed as both class I positive and negative tumor cells exist in individuals. It is considered that the prognoses may be improved, because doctors be able to select two kind of cells for patients.
Recently development of antibody-medicine is advancing at pharmaceutical companies. The mechanism of some of antibody-medicines is based on ADCC (antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity). NK cells play important role in ADCC, so the synergistic effect by antibodies will be expected.
Same as the activated autologous lymphocyte therapy, mononuclear cells are collected from peripheral blood sample and cultured. αβ T cells are cultured in flasks where anti-CD3 anti bodies are already present.
Antibodies which stimulate NK cells are used for NK cell processing.
As various culturing methods are developed to suit each immune cell type, we can culture specific types of immune cells based on needs.